The learning by discovery is defined as the way to learn in which the subject obtains the data of direct form and by its own means. This way, the information does not come from anybody outside but it is acquired by means of the personal discovery that the person does.
Thus, from that principle the hypothesis is born that affirms that the user is able to assimilate his own conclusions following a self-regulation and harnessing the own investigation at the time of solving some problem actively.
The learning by discovery is one of the main routes with which it is possible to be acquired new knowledge. In addition, one is one to the types of learning who allow the user to assimilate and to acquire of lasting way these knowledge.
This learning is more common in the field of the science, in which the information retention is related to the capacities of the user. That is to say, it does not come from direct way of outsourcing or previous knowledge.
INDEX OF CONTENTS
Types of learning by discovery
The learning by discovery can be divided essentially in three different types. Following the objective at which it is desired to arrive and from the mental structure of the user, we have:
- Inductive discovery: One is to retain and to order the data obtained from particular and specific data, to reach a general conclusion. This conclusion will be valid, in principle, for the new particular cases that they are. Here part of the tactical missions and is tried to arrive at a general concept (for example, a mathematical law).
- Deductive discovery: It is the comparison of the information of concrete facts with other general concepts, in order to formulate one or several conclusions that affect to specific questions. Here part of the general concept and is applied to tactical missions.
- Transductivo discovery: One is to compare two elements or definitions and to indicate the similarities between both.
The learning by discovery, formulated and enunciated by Bruner, part of the constructivist learning, which mentions that it is a process of information retention that directly is related to the user.
Since each human being owns his own mental structures (that is to say, that all we learn of unique way), the knowledge must be excellent or significant. For that reason, he must have a base in the information that previously or had the user (or by its surroundings or previous experiences).
The followers of the theory of Jerome Bruner observe diverse advantages of the learning by discovery. Among them, they emphasize:
- He is useful to replace the traditional or mechanist learning.
- The capacity of analysis for the resolution of problems improves.
- Power the mental structure.
- He is peculiarly useful for the learning of foreign languages.
- It stimulates the users to formulate own hypotheses, in addition to analyzing and as much correcting of critical way the own ones as the other people's ones.
- Power and stimulates the self-esteem in relation to the information retention.
Although this type of learning can have certain advantages, also presents certain disadvantages. For that reason, authors exist who have criticized this type of learning.
The most common disadvantages are:
- It presents difficulties in classrooms with lifted numbers of students.
- Directly it is related to the motivation of the students. If anybody is not motivated and it does not want to learn, it cannot use this method.
- It can take passage to nondesirable tasks, bringing about frustration to the student.
- It can make more complicated the retention of information in the student.
- Critics exist towards the learning by discovery that mention that he is a little mechanist.
To promote the learning by discovery
Since this method frequently is used in the education pedagogy, the professors have the objective to shape the knowledge in their students. In order to foment the learning, one is due to take into account that:
- The investigation structure must be restricted.
- The investigation must be guided towards a specific objective.
- The knowledge are due to consider that already the pupils own and to start off of that base.
- One is due to teach tools for the analysis, conclusion and correction.
- To foment the importance of this type of learning and of specifying the objectives to obtain.
- The learning must be based on the solution of concrete problems.
- The discovery power the retention of the lasting knowledge but only if the student is motivated.
At present, the pedagogical structure is extremely ample. With happening of the years diverse methods have been developed that are related to the learning.
This so much in institutes as schools and even in universities is applied. All in order to include the mental structure and the way in which the human being retains the information.
Timoteo has studies in psychology and teaching, reason why it has collaborated with different social projects from education and psychology. He has developed his work especially in Galicia (Spain).
At the moment he writes in the Web that you are reading (Styles of Learning) with the purpose of to disclose the knowledge acquired during his time of study.